The idea of word frequency lists and dictionaries is to discover the most frequent words in a language. If you are a learner or teacher, this allows you to use your time more effectively, by focusing on learning the words that you or your students are most likely to encounter in the real world.
In day-to-day speech, 95% consists of the most common 1.000 words. In written text, the most common 2.000 words make up about 80% of what you encounter on a daily basis.
A "normal" dictionary will list words from A-Z, and sometimes it even highlights "frequent" words. But which ones are the most frequent ones? The only way to discover this by using real frequency lists, based on a reliable corpus. A corpus is a collection of texts.
So what can one do with with real frequency data? There are no end to the possibilities, but here are the two most important ones:
With these points in mind, we created a series of frequency dictionaries, to help language learners worldwide achieve their goals. This is inside our books:
Listed by frequency and alphabet. We use subtitles to determine frequency rank. Subtitles are the best way of determining frequency rank, as they cover both spoken and written vocabulary, according to science. Our frequency dictionaries contain 2.500 entries per book, with books ranging from.
In the target language, with their English translations. Example sentences are great, because they:
You''ll always know how to pronounce a word the right way. Words are written phonetically, the way you pronounce words. *Except in languages where pronunciation is straightforward.
We give you some pointers on how to learn efficiently, some secret strategies for remember words faster, and how to immerse yourself without leaving the country.
Helping you becoming fluent in the language of your choice, is our goal. We believe in science. We build our books with the following scientific principles in mind. These facts make our books so books so efficient and valuable.
"Every study out there starts with stating that subtitles are the best way to discover word frequencies you will use in day to day situations.:
"More importantly, different analyses showed that frequencies estimated from a subtitle corpus explained the obtained results significantly better than traditional frequencies derived from written corpora."
Subtitle-Based Word Frequencies as the Best Estimate of Reading Behavior: The Case of Greek - Front Psychol. 2010; 1: 218.
"Previous evidence has shown that word frequencies calculated from corpora based on film and television subtitles can readily account for reading performance, since the language used in subtitles greatly approximates everyday language."
Subtlex-pl: subtitle-based word frequency estimates for Polish. *Behav Res Methods. 2015 Jun;47(2):471-83. doi: 10.3758/s13428-014-0489-4.
"As for the language register, we found that frequencies based on television and film subtitles are better than frequencies based on written sources, certainly for the monosyllabic and bisyllabic words used in psycholinguistic research."
"Moving beyond Kucera and Francis: a critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English." Behav Res Methods. 2009 Nov;41(4):977-90. doi: 10.3758/BRM.41.4.977.
"Our results confirm that word frequencies based on subtitles are a good estimate of daily language exposure and capture much of the variance in word processing efficiency. In addition, our database is the first to include information about the contextual diversity of the words and to provide good frequency estimates for multi-character words and the different syntactic roles in which the words are used"
SUBTLEX-CH: Chinese Word and Character Frequencies Based on Film Subtitles - Qing Cai, Marc Brysbaert. Published: June 2, 2010
Our dictionaries are made out analyzing millions of subtitles. Subtitles are the best choice when trying to determine frequency rankings. According to science, subtitles corrolate to both spoken and written texts. About 73% and 85%, according to science.*
Spoken and written vocabulary, we got you covered.
In other words, New et al. showed that word frequencies obtained from a subtitle-based corpus were as good as the traditional written word frequency estimations and better than oral frequency estimations at predicting reading behavior.
*Subtitle-Based Word Frequencies as the Best Estimate of Reading Behavior: The Case of Greek - Front Psychol. 2010; 1: 218.
IIf you want to remember something for the long term, such as vocabulary in a foreign language or facts you need for your profession, the most efficient way to learn that material is by following the principle of spaced repetition.
"Spaced repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material; this exploits the psychological spacing effect."
The Science of Faster Memorization with Spaced Repetition - SkillCookBook
Our example sentences repeat more used words more often. By frequently encountering previously learned vocubalary you will learn faster through the principle of spaced repetition.
"Using spaced repetition as a study technique is effective because you are deliberately hacking the way your brain works" - The Guardian
Spaced repition helps you remember vocabulary faster.
You'll discover the meaning Spanish words through context with reading our translated example sentences. You learn 30% faster.
An Investigation of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in Relation to Learner Proficiency Level and Word Frequency http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2006.tb02263.x/abstract
Learning vocabulary through meaning-focused input: Replication of Elley (1989) and Liu & Nation (1985)
While it’s important to note it’s impossible to pin down these numbers and statistics with 100% accuracy, these are a global average of multiple sources. According to research, this is the amount of vocabulary needed for varying levels of fluency.
To measure language proficiency, we use the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) ratings.
However, the Common European Languages Framework does not provide a clear vocabulary size for any of its levels, so we do not know how many knows words are expected at each level.
In 2009, a scientific study by linguistics Milton and Alexiou tried to measure vocabulary size needed for fluency. These are the results for English, French and Modern Greek.
|CEFR level||Vocabulary size: English||Vocabulary size: French||Vocabulary size: Modern Greek|
|A2||1500 – 2500||1650||2237|
|B1||2750 – 3250||2422||3288|
|B2||3250 – 3750||2630||3956|
|C1||3750 – 4500||3212|
|C2||4500 – 5000||3525|
Vocabulary size and the CEFR (Milton and Alexiou 2009)